The four Ps – a market-led development for smallholders

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How to sustainably and profitably link smallholders to agribusiness operators and markets? This question has always been central among development practitioners and policy makers. Public-private partnerships – complemented by a fourth “P”, the producers – are increasingly seen as a tool to enable smallholder’s market access. But how must they be designed to ensure that farmers are more than mere suppliers of raw material depending on the decisions of agribusiness operators? Based on lessons learned from its projects, the International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD) identified a number of enabling factors to ensure the development impact of agricultural public-private-producer partnerships (4Ps).